The seas and skies around the Scottish coastline will be alive to the sound of military manoeuvres for the next couple of weeks as thousands of military personnel from around the world take part in a major NATO exercise.
Exercise Joint Warrior is one of the largest tri-Service and multinational exercises of its kind in Europe.
Itinvolves 31 warships and submarines, 60 aircraft, and around 6500 personnel from 14 nations.
Ships, submarines, aircraft and ground troops from the UK, US and other NATO allies will take part, improving operations between countries and services, and warfighting capability at sea, in air and on land.
The exercise will be led from HM Naval Base Clyde at Faslane, while RAF Lossiemouth will the host base for Typhoon jets and maritime patrol aircraft from the US, Canada, France and Germany.
Operating in maritime exercise areas off the coast of Scotland, Joint Warrior provides the UK and allies the chance to practice the vital skills needed by armed forces on the modern battlefield.
Training in skills such as counter-smuggling and insurgency; anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare; mine counter measures operations; joint firing; composite air operations; reconnaissance, and electronic warfare training will all be practised during the two-weeks.
Another vital skill being practised is GPS denial operations, which will be limited to a small area off North West Scotland. All relevant authorities, including aviation and maritime communities have been consulted in advance and procedures are in place for unforeseen eventualities.
The Ministry of Defence describes Exercise Joint Warrior as: “an example of NATO allies and partners working together as a credible coalition in the air, land and maritime environments to reassure allies and deal with contemporary threats.
“It tangibly demonstrates NATO’s resolve, readiness and intent and the key role played by the UK in the Alliance.”
The 14 nations taking part in Exercise Joint Warrior, between October 3 and 13 are: the UK, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and the US.
More on the exercise is available at http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/qhm/clyde/jw%22